Systems Preservation Glossary

A
Agency Costs   - See Annual Cost
Alligator Cracking    - A series of interconnecting cracks in an asphalt pavement surface forming a pattern that resembles an alligator's hide or chicke...
Analysis Period    - The period of time used in making economic comparisons between rehabilitation alternatives. The analysis period should not be co...
Annual Cost    - Any costs associated with the annual maintenance and repair of the facility.
Application Temperature    - The manufacturer's recommended temperature to be used when installing sealant. For hot-applied sealants, the application tempera...
Asphalt Tack Coat    - A light application of asphalt, usually asphalt emulsion (liquid) diluted with water. It is used to ensure a bond between two bi...
Asset Management    - A systematic process of maintaining, upgrading, and operating physical assets cost-effectively. It combines engineering principl...
B
Backer Material    - A compressible material that is placed in joints or cracks before applying sealant to prevent bonding of the sealant on the bott...
Bituminous Pavement    - A pavement comprising an upper layer or layers of aggregate mixed with a bituminous binder, such as asphalt, coal tars, and natu...
Bleeding    - Excess asphalt binder occurring on the pavement surface. The bleeding may create a shiny, glass-like surface that may be tacky t...
Block Cracking    - A rectangular pattern of cracking in asphalt pavements that is caused by hardening and shrinkage of the asphalt. Block cracking ...
Blow-up (Pavement)    - Buckling and shattering of PCC pavement resulting from thermal expansion and the resultant compressive forces exceeding the stre...
Bond Breaker    - Any material used to prevent bonding or to separate adjacent pavement layers. Thin bituminous layers are often used as bond brea...
Bonded Concrete Overlay    - This overlay provides an increase in the pavement structure of a concrete pavement by addition of concrete thickness in direct c...
Break (Curing)    - The process in the curing of an asphalt emulsion (liquid) by which the globules of asphalt become separated from the water. The ...
Bridge Corrective Maintenance    - Maintenance performed once a deficiency occurs on the bridge. Examples: pothole filling, spall repair and bridge rail repair.
Bridge Emergency Repairs    - describes work activities generally necessary to return a bridge back to a minimum level of service following a significant even...
Bridge Major Rehabilitation    - Consists of structural or operational improvements that extend the service life of an existing bridge and/or improve its load-ca...
Bridge Minor Rehabilitation    - Consists of repairs to address deterioration of structural elements, protective surfaces or riding surfaces to extend the servic...
Bridge Preservation    - A program employing a network level, long term strategy that enhances bridge performance by using an integrated, cost-effective ... 41
Bridge Preventive Maintenance    - Is a planned strategy of systematic, cost-effective treatments to existing bridge elements that preserve the current condition a...
Bridge Replacement    - Is the replacement of the entire existing deficient bridge structure.
Bridge Routine Maintenance    - Defined as repair work typically performed by DOTD that is planned and carried out on a scheduled basis to maintain the bridge. ...
C
California Profilograph    - A rolling straight-edge tool used for evaluating pavement profile (smoothness) consisting of a 7.5m (25-ft) frame with a sensing...
Carbide Milling    - Surface removal or sawing done with a carbide milling machine. The machine uses a blade or arbor (a beam or shaft) equipped with...
Chemically Curing Sealant    - A sealant material that reaches its final properties through the reaction of the component materials when mixed.
Chip Seal    - A surface treatment in which the pavement is sprayed with asphalt (generally emulsified - liquid) and then immediately covered w...
Cohesion    - The internal bond (uniting) within a joint sealant material. Cohesion loss is seen as a noticeable tear along the surface and th...
Cold Applied Sealant    - A crack-sealing compound that is applied in an unheated state (generally at ambient (surrounding) temperature) and then reaches ...
Cold In-place Recycling    - A process in which a portion of an existing bituminous pavement is pulverized or milled, and then the reclaimed material is mixe... CIR
Cold Milling    - A process of removing pavement material from the surface of the pavement either to prepare the surface to receive overlays (by r...
Compressible Insert    - Material used to separate freshly placed concrete (such as from a partial-depth or full-depth repair) from existing hardened con...
Concrete Pavement Restoration    - A series of repair techniques used to preserve or improve the structural capacity or functional characteristics of a PCC pavemen... CPR
Construction Joint    - A joint constructed in a transverse (across) direction in PCC pavements to control cracking of the slab as it cures. Highway con...
Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement    - PCC pavement constructed with sufficient longitudinal steel reinforcement to control transverse-crack spacings and openings in l... CRCP
Contract Maintenance    - The range of contracting methods and vehicles used by public transportation agencies to accomplish maintenance programs and supp...
Corner Break    - A portion of a concrete slab separated by a crack that intersects the adjacent transverse or longitudinal joints at about a 45 d...
Corrective Maintenance    - Maintenance performed once a deficiency occurs in the pavement, for example the filling of a pothole.
Crack    - Fissure or discontinuity of the pavement surface not necessarily extending through the entire thickness of the pavement. Cracks ...
Crack Filling    - The placement of materials into non-working cracks to substantially reduce the intrusion of incompressibles and infiltration of ...
Crack Sealing    - A maintenance procedure that involves placement of specialized materials into working cracks using unique configurations to redu...
Cross Stitching    - A repair method that involves the drilling of holes diagonally across a crack in PCC pavement into which steel reinforcement bar...
Cure   - See Curing
Curing    - The maintenance of a satisfactory moisture content and temperature in concrete during its early stages so that desired propertie...
Curing Blanket    - A built-up covering of burlap sacks, matting, straw, waterproof paper or other suitable material placed over freshly finished co...
Curing Compound    - A liquid that can be applied as a coating to the surface of newly placed concrete to retard the loss of water, or in the case of...
D
Dense-Graded Asphalt Pavement    - An overlay or surface course consisting of a mixture of asphalt binder and a well-graded (also called dense-graded) aggregate. A...
Depression    - Localized pavement surface areas at a lower elevation than the adjacent paved areas.
Design Life    - The expected life of a pavement from its opening to traffic until structural rehabilitation is needed. The typical reporting of ...
Diamond Grinding    - A process that uses a series of diamond-tipped saw blades mounted on a shaft or arbor to shave the upper surface of a pavement t...
Dowel    - Most commonly a plain round steel bar (usually coated, such as with paint or epoxy as a bond breaker), which extends into two ad...
Dowel Bar retrofit    - A rehabilitation technique that is used to increase the load transfer capability of existing jointed PCC pavements by placement ...
E
Emergency Repairs    - Work activities generally necessary to return a pavement back to a minimum level of service following a significant event such a...
Emulsified Asphalt    - A liquid mixture of asphalt binder, water, and an emulsifying agent. Minute globules of asphalt are suspended in water by using ...
F
Fatigue Cracking
Faulting    - Differential vertical displacement of a slab or other member adjacent to a joint or crack. Faulting commonly occurs at transvers...
Fiber Modified Sealant    - Generally a hot-applied sealant that is composed of unmodified or modified asphalt cement and heat resistant polymeric fibers an...
Fog Seal    - A light application of slow setting asphalt emulsion (liquid) diluted with water and without the addition of any aggregate appli...
Free Edge    - An unrestrained pavement boundary.
Fuel Resistant Sealant    - A joint or crack sealant compound that is resistant to and maintains serviceability after being exposed to fuel or other petrole...
Full-Depth Patching    - Removal and replacement of a segment of pavement to the level of the subgrade in order to restore areas of deterioration. May be...
Functional Performance    - A pavement's ability to provide a safe, smooth riding surface. These attributes are typically measured in terms of ride quality ...
G
Grinding Head    - Arbor or shaft containing numerous diamond blades or carbide teeth on diamond grinding or cold milling equipment.
Grooving    - The process used to cut slots into a pavement surface (usually, although not always, PCC) to provide channels for water to escap...
H
Heater Scarification    - The initial phase of a hot in-place recycling (HIR) process in which the surface of the old pavement is heated and mechanically ...
Hot Air Lance    - A device that uses heated compressed air to clean, dry, and warm cracks prior to sealing.
Hot Applied Sealant    - A crack or joint sealing compound that is applied in a molten state and cures primarily by cooling to ambient (surrounding) temp...
Hot In-place Recycling    - A process which consists of softening the existing asphalt surface with heat, mechanically removing the surface material, mixing... HIR
Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete    - A thoroughly controlled mixture of asphalt binder and well-graded, high quality aggregate thoroughly compacted into a uniform de... HMAC
Hydroplaning    - Loss of contact between vehicle tires and roadway surface that occurs when vehicles travel at high speeds on pavement surfaces w...
I
International Friction Index    - A measure of pavement macrotexture and wet pavement friction at 60 miles per hour determined using measured friction at some tes... IFI
International Roughness Index    - A measure of a pavement's longitudinal surface profile as measured in the wheelpath by a vehicle traveling at typical operating ... IRI
J
Joint    - A pavement discontinuity (break or gap) made necessary by design or by interruption of a paving operation.
Joint Depth    - The measurement of a saw cut from the top of the pavement surface to the bottom of the cut.
Joint Filler    - Compressible material used to fill a joint to prevent the infiltration of debris.
Joint Seal Deterioration    - Break down of a joint or crack sealant, such as by adhesion or cohesion loss, which contributes to the failure of the sealant sy...
Joint Sealant    - Compressible material used to minimize water and solid debris infiltration into the sealant reservoir and joint.
Joint Shape Factor    - Ratio of the vertical to horizontal dimension of the joint sealant. Factor can vary depending on type of sealant specified.
Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement    - PCC pavement constructed with regularly spaced transverse joints to control all natural cracks expected in the concrete. Dowel b... JPCP
Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement    - Portland cement concrete pavement containing regularly spaced transverse joints and embedded steel mesh reinforcement (sometimes... JRCP
L
Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff    - (highways, roads and streets only) Difference in elevation between the traveled surface and the shoulder surface.
Life Cycle Costing    - An economic assessment of an item, system, or facility and competing design alternatives considering all significant costs of ow...
Life Extension    - The extension of the performance period of the pavement through the application of pavement treatments.
Load Transfer Efficiency    - A measure of the ability of a joint or crack to transfer a portion of a load applied on one side of a joint or crack to the othe...
Longitudinal Crack    - A crack or discontinuity in a pavement that runs generally parallel to the pavement centerline. Longitudinal cracks may occur as...
Longitudinal Joint    - A constructed joint in a pavement layer that is oriented parallel to the pavement centerline.
Low Modulus Sealant    - A joint or crack sealing material, which is less stiff at low temperatures than standard grade sealants.
M
Major Rehabilitation    - Major rehabilitation consists of structural enhancements that extend the service life of an existing pavement system and/or impr...
Maximum Heating Temperature    - The maximum temperature, as recommended by the manufacturer, to which a hot-applied joint or crack sealant can be heated while c...
Melter    - A piece of equipment designed specifically to heat hot applied joint or crack sealant accurately and controllably to a temperatu...
Melter Applicator    - A piece of equipment designed specifically to melt, heat accurately and controllably, and apply hot-applied sealants to pavement...
Microsurfacing    - A mixture of polymer modified asphalt emulsion (liquid), mineral aggregate, mineral filler, water, and other additives, properly...
Mineral Filler    - A finely divided mineral product - commonly used mineral fillers include, limestone dust, hydrated lime, portland cement, and fl...
Minimum Application Temperature    - The minimum temperature, as recommended by the manufacturer, to which a hot-applied sealant for pavement cracks or joints must b...
Minor Rehabilitation    - Consists of non-structural improvements or repairs made to the existing pavement sections to address pavement distresses. ...
Modified Asphalt Chip Seal    - A variation on conventional chip seals in which the asphalt binder is modified with a blend of ground tire or latex rubber, or p...
O
Open-Graded Friction Course    - A thin HMA surface course consisting of a mix of an asphalt binder and open-graded (also called uniformly graded) aggregate. An ... OGFC
Overbanding    - Overfilling of a joint or crack reservoir so that a thin layer of crack or joint sealant is spread onto the pavement surface cen...
P
Partial Depth patching    - Repairs of localized areas of surface deterioration of PCC pavements, usually for compression spalling problems, severe scaling,...
Patch    - Placement of a repair material to replace a localized defect in the pavement surface.
Pavement Distress    - External (visible) indications of pavement defects or deterioration.
Pavement Preservation    - A program employing a network level, long term strategy that enhances pavement performance by using an integrated, cost-effec... 41
Pavement Replacement    - the replacement of the entire existing pavement structure by the placement of an equivalent or increased pavement structure gene...
Performance Period    - The period of time that an initially constructed or rehabilitated pavement structure will perform before reaching its terminal s...
Plant Mix    - See Hot Mix Asphalt.
Point Bearing    - Concentration of compressive stressed between small areas. May occur when a partial-depth patch in portland cement concrete pav...
Polishing    - Wearing away of the surface binder, causing exposure of the coarse aggregate particles. A polished pavement surface is smooth a...
Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (PCC)    - A pavement constructed of portland cement concrete with or without reinforcement. Conventional PCC pavements include JPCP, JRCP...
Potholes    - Loss of surface material in an HMA pavement to the extent that a patch is needed to restore pavement rideability.
Preformed Compression Sealant    - An extruded joint sealing material for PCC pavement that is manufactured ready for installation and is supplied in rolls. Prefo...
Present Serviceability Index (PSI)    - A subjective rating of the pavement condition made by a group of individuals riding over the pavement. May also be determined b...
Preventive Maintenance    - Is a planned strategy of cost-effective, non-structural treatments to existing pavements that preserves the current condition an...
Pumping    - Ejection of fine-grained material and water from beneath the pavement through joints, cracks, or the pavment edge, caused by the...
R
Raveling    - Wearing away of the pavement surface caused by the dislodging of aggregate particles and loss of asphalt binder.
Recycling Agents    - Organic materials with specific chemical and physical characteristics that are used in pavement recycling to address binder defi...
Reflection Cracking    - Cracking that appears on the surface of a pavement above joints and cracks in the underlying pavement layer due to horizontal an...
Rejuvenating Agent    - Similar to recycling agents in material composition, these products are added to existing aged or oxidized HMA pavements in orde...
Reservoir    - The part of a portland cement concrete pavement joint that normally holds a sealant material, usually formed by a widening saw c...
Retrofit Dowel Bars    - Dowels that are installed into slots cut into the surface of an existing concrete pavement to restore load transfer.
Rideability    - A measure of the ride quality of a pavement as perceived by its users or roughness measuring equipment.
Router    - A mechanical device, with a rotary cutting system, that is used to widen, cut, and clean cracks in pavements prior to sealing.
Routine Maintenance    - Defined as repair work typically performed by DOTD that is planned and carried out on a scheduled basis to maintain the pavement...
Rubberized Asphalt Concrete (RAC)    - Similar to HMA but having a minimum 20% crumb rubber additive. RAC offers greater resistance to reflective cracking than convent...
Rubberized Asphalt Sealant    - A sealant, generally hot applied, that is composed of asphalt cement, various types of rubber or polymer modifiers, and other co...
Rutting    - Longitudinal surface depressions in the wheel path of an HMA pavement, caused by plastic movement of the HMA mix, inadequate com...
S
Sand Seal    - An application of asphalt binder, normally an emulsion (liquid), covered with a fine aggregate. It may be used to improve the s...
Sandblasting    - A procedure in which sand particles are blown with compressed air at a pavement surface to abrade and clean the surface. Sandbl...
Sandwich Seal    - A surface treatment that consists of application of asphalt emulsion (liquid) and a large aggregate, followed by a second applic...
Scrub Seal    - Application of a polymer modified asphalt to the pavement surface followed by the broom scrubbing of the asphalt into cracks and...
Sealant    - A material that has adhesive and cohesive properties to seal joints, cracks, or other various openings against the entrance or p...
Sealant Reservoir   - See Reservoir
Sealing    - The process of placing sealant material in prepared joints or cracks to minimize intrusion of water and incompressible materials...
Sealing Compound   - See Joint Sealant
Segregation    - Separation of aggregate component of asphaltic or portland cement by particle size during placement.
Serviceability    - Ability of a pavement to provide a safe and comfortable ride to its users. As such, it is primarily a measure of the functional...
Settlement    - A depression at the pavement surface that is caused by the settling or erosion of one or more underlying layers.
Shoving    - Localized displacement of an HMA pavement surface. Shoving is often caused by braking or accelerating vehicles.
Silicone Sealant    - A type of joint or crack sealant compound either self leveling or non-sag in application characteristics, that is based on polym...
Skid Resistance    - A measure of the frictional characteristics of a surface.
Slab Stabilization    - Process of injecting grout or bituminous materials beneath PCC pavements in order to fill voids without raising the pavement.
Slippage cracking    - Cracking associated with the horizontal displacement of a localized area of an HMA pavement surface.
Slurry    - Mixture of a liquid and fine solid particles that together are denser than water.
Slurry Seal    - A mixture of slow setting emulsified asphalt, well graded fine aggregate, mineral filler, and water. It is used to fill cracks ...
Spalling, Compression    - Cracking, breaking, chipping, or fraying of slab edges within 0.6 meters (2-ft) of a transverse crack.
Spalling, Sliver    - Chipping of concrete edge along a joint sealant usually within 12 mm (0.5in) of the joint edge.
Spalling, Surface    - Cracking, breaking, chipping, or fraying of slab surface, usually within a confined area less than 0.5 square meters (0.6 sy).
Stone Matrix Asphalt    - A mixture of asphalt binder, stabilizer material, mineral filler, and gap-graded aggregate. SMAs are used as a rut resistant we... SMA
Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer    - A thin layer that is placed between an underlying pavement and an HMA overlay for the purpose of dissipating movements and stres... SAMI
Structural Condition    - The condition of a pavement as it pertains to its ability to support repeated traffic loadings.
Structural Overlay    - An increase in the pavement load carrying capacity by adding additional pavement layers.
Surface Texture    - The microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of the pavement surface that contribute to surface friction and noise.
Surface Treatment    - Any application applied to an asphalt pavement surface to restore or protect the surface characteristics. Surface treatments in...
Swell    - A hump in the pavement surface that may occur over a small area or as a longer, gradual wave; either type of swell can be accomp...
Systems Preservation Section    - Contact: (225) 379-1951 41
T
Terminal Serviceability    - The lowest acceptable serviceability rating before resurfacing or reconstruction becomes necessary for the particular class of h...
Thin Overlay    - A HMA overlay with one lift of surface course generally with a thickness of 38 mm (1.5 in) or less.
Transverse Crack    - A discontinuity in a pavement surface that runs generally perpendicular to the pavement centerline. In HMA pavements, transverse...
Treatment Life    - The period of time during which a treatment application remains effective. Treatment life is contrasted with Life Extension.
Two Component Sealant    - A sealant supplied in two components which must be mixed at a specified ratio prior to application in order to cure to final pro...
U
Ultra-thin Overlay    - An HMA overlay over an existing HMA or PCC pavement, generally less than 25 mm (1 in) in thickness.
Ultra-thin Whitetopping    - A thin (2 to 4 inch [50 to 100 mm]) PCC overlay over an existing HMA pavement. UTW is a functional overlay that provides a stabl... UTW
Unbonded Overlay    - An HMA overlay over an existing HMA or PCC pavement, generally less than 25 mm (1 in) in thickness. – Increase in the ...
User Costs    - Costs incurred by highway users traveling on the facility, and the excess costs incurred by those who cannot use the facility be...
W
Warranty    - Contractual agreement between an approved contractor/vendor ad the agency soliciting bids, that uses specific performance measur...
Waterblasting    - The use of a high-pressure water stream (8500 to 10,000 psi) to clean PCC. It may be used in PCC joint resealing to remove sawi...
Working Crack    - A crack in a pavement that undergoes significant deflection and thermal opening and closing movements greater than 2 mm (1/16 in...